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Basic Information
History

The continuity of the Serbian statehood, originating from the early Middle Ages had been interrupted by Ottoman conquest. The stablishment of modern state had commenced in the year 1804. The period marked by wars and social changes, known as Serbian revolution, had enabled the formation of the Principality of Serbia in the year 1817, on the territory of the largest part of current Central Serbia, presenting an autonomous area within the Ottoman Empire. After Serbia had became de facto independent, obsolete social and economic systems pertaining to Ottoman Empire were thrown away having as a result industrial innovations in the economy. One of the most significant events in this period had been the adoption of the first democratic Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (Sretenje Constitution, 1835), which was founded on the positive constitutional practice of Belgium and France. The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia dating from 1835 had presented at the same time one of the first modern Constitutions in Europe. The Principality of Serbia had obtained its full independence, amongst the first countries on the Balkans, owing to the provisions of the Congress of Berlin (1878) and before long it was proclaimed the Kingdom of Serbia (1882).     

Following World War I, Vojvodina became an integral part of the Kingdom of Serbia having already in its composition modern Central Serbia and Kosovo. In the year 1918, Serbia joined a newly-formed state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, to be formally renamed into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the year 1929. 

Following the completion of World War II and revolution taking place in Serbia, the monarchy was abolished and the socialism was introduced as a political and social system, whereas the state became the Federation having six republics in its composition. Te state changed its official name, to be designated the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in the year 1963.

In the beggining of the nineties of the twentieth century, the civil war broke out in the SFRY. All the republics which proclaimed independence became internationally recognised. The Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, with no conflicts on their territories, established the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in the year 1992.

Following the political changes in the year 2000, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia again accessed to international political and economic organizations, whereas the state was renamed into the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003). Following the proclaiming of independence by Montengro in the year 2006, Serbia became an independent state having an official name the Republic of Serbia. 

The capital city of the Republic of Serbia is the City of Belgrade.

 

 
Geography
The Republic of Serbia is acontinental country situated in the South-eastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula (about 80% of its territory) and in the region of Middle Europe, in the Pannonian Basin (up to 20% of the territory). The total area of the territory of the Republic of Serbia amounts to 88.361 kmē. Northern Serbia is mainly flat, while its central and southern areas consist of highlands and mountains. The lowest point amounts to only 17 metres above sea level being situated on the Danube flow, near Prahovo, whereas the highest point is Djeravica (Prokletije mountain range) with the height of 2.565 metres above sea level.
The largest part of Serbia belongs to the Danube basin (92.4%). Serbia does not have access to the sea, but across the Danube River, as part of the river system the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, is linked with the North Sea and Mediterranean Sea. The Danube River flows through the northern part of the country, with the length of 588 km. With its central location in the Balkans, Serbia has comparative advantage in transit and is located on the crossroads of the European routes (Corridor VII, X and XI).   
The total length of Serbia's border is 2.397 kilometres (land border 1.717 km, river border 680 km). Serbia borders Bulgaria to the east, Romania to the north-east, Hungary to the north, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro and Albania to the south-west and Macedonia to the south.
 
Demography
According to the last official Census 2011, the population of Serbia comprises 7.120.666 citizens, out of which there are 1.639.121 citizens living in the capital city including its suburbs.
According to the Census 2002, majority of the population of Serbia are Serbs (82.9%). The rest of the population are the representatives of national minorities, mostly Hungarians (3.9%), Bosniaks (1.8%), Roma (1.4%), Montenegrins (0.9%) and other (8%).
 The fertility rate is 1.4 children to a woman and that is lower then the World average. The age structure of citizens is comprised of middle aged citizens, i.e. 15-65 years (68%),  whereas the average life expectancy is 74.5 years (of men 71.71 years, women 77.58 years). 56% of the population lives in cities, whilst as much as 96.4% of citizens are literate.   
The official language in Serbia is Serbian and the script in the official use is Cyrillic. In addition to Serbian, the languages of national minorities are also spoken in Serbia. 
The largest number of inhabitants of Serbia are Christian Orthodox (85%). There are also other religious communities in Serbia: Roman Catholics (5.5%), Muslims (3.2%) and Protestants (1.08%). In addition to mentioned religious communities, there is a considerable number of other, vaguely represented religions, and a certain number of atheists. The Serbian Constitution guarantees the civil rights and the rights of national minorities and religious communities.
 
 
 
 
 
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Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Serbia - Public Debt Administration
Pop Lukina 7-9, Belgrade
Tel : + 381 11 3202 461 ; Fax: +381 11 2629 055
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